Agreement: The text is necessary to ensure that certain IP managements and legislation do not constitute expropriation. [Recognizing that investment as an engine of economic growth can play a key role in ensuring sustainable economic growth, if accompanied by appropriate environmental policies, to ensure that they are environmentally friendly] [Recognizing that appropriate environmental policies can play a key role in ensuring that the economic development to which the investments contribute are sustainable] and in the decision [with the objective] to implement this agreement, in accordance with international environmental law and] in a manner consistent with sustainable development, as set out in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21 [including the protection and conservation of the environment and Environment and environment and environment the principles of polluter pays and precautionary approach]; The consolidated consideration application is subject to arbitration proceedings according to the rules chosen by the agreement of the parties of an investor on the list referred to in paragraph 2.c. The parties to the investor present themselves as a party when the court is formed. Under the conditions provided for by a national treatment, each contracting party grants financial services companies that invest investors of any other contracting party with their head office in its territory access to payment and clearing systems managed by public bodies, as well as to the official financing and refinancing facilities available in the context of normal transactions. [C. No party may, as part of a measure adopted after the date of this agreement and contained in Appendix B, ask an investor of another contracting party, on the basis of his nationality, to sell or sell an existing investment on the effective date of the measure.] investments made by investors of another party in the provision of monopolistic products or services in the market in question, without discrimination; [This agreement applies to investments made prior to its entry into force for the parties concerned [in accordance with the legislation of the contracting party in the territory in which it was made] and for subsequent investments. This agreement does not apply to rights arising from events that occurred prior to its entry into force or to claims settled prior to its entry into force.] or [this agreement applies to investments in progress on the effective date and investments that have been established or subsequently acquired;] Opponents of the MAI have pointed to a supposed threat to national sovereignty.  and democracy and argues that it would involve participating nations in a „race to the bottom” in environmental and labour standards.   The MAI has drawn criticism that it appears to have established a new body of universal investment laws to ensure excessive powers for companies to purchase, sell and execute financial transactions around the world, which has greatly watered down national laws. B, such as environmental protection, labour standards regulation and human rights, established in developed countries.