The 1997 Kyoto Protocol Is Best Described As An Agreement That Requires

Under the Kyoto Protocol, 37 industrialised countries and the European Community (the European Union-15, composed of 15 countries at the time of the Kyoto negotiations) commit to achieving binding GHG emission targets. [29] The targets are the four greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen gas (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and two gas groups, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). [32] The six greenhouse gases are translated into CO2 equivalents when determining emission reductions. [33] These reduction targets apply in addition to industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs treated in the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Workers at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Agency (EIA) considered six projections for 2012 for the United States. carbon emissions that range from a cap representing the „reference case” or business as usual to the reduction levels prescribed by the protocol. U.S. carbon emissions in 2012 range from about 1.25× 109 to 1.87 × 109 mt. Gupta et al. (2007)[118] described the commitments made in the first Kyoto round as „modest” and stated that they restrict the effectiveness of the treaty.

It was suggested that subsequent Kyoto commitments could be made more effective through measures to reduce lower emissions and apply policies to a larger share of global emissions. [118] In 2008, countries with a Kyoto ceiling accounted for less than a third of the world`s annual carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion. [119] The Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions from several categories of technical gases are limited: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions from these three gas categories account for about 2% of the United States. Weighted GWP emissions. There are several other categories of chemicals that are also considered greenhouse gases, but are excluded from the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, as they are already controlled under the Montreal Protocol on Ozone-depleting Substances. These include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HFCs) and several solvents. Emissions from the gases contained in the Kyoto Protocol increased rapidly in the 1990s, but the emissions of all are very low (a few thousand tonnes at most). On the other hand, many gases have an atmospheric lifetime measured in hundreds or thousands of years, and therefore, they are potent greenhouse gases with a global warming potential that is hundreds or thousands of times greater than that of carbon dioxide per unit weight. Ban Ki Moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, called on world leaders to reach an agreement on the fight against global warming at the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly[153] held in New York on 23 September 2014. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, which gave birth to the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol.